My teacher told me of a recent lecture at Univ. of North Florida by Jon Faddis. The lecture became a master class when Mr. Faddis played a series of correct notes without the corresponding rhythm. Then he played incorrect notes with the proper rhythym. The students picked out the tune (some nursey rhyme) immediately.
Librarians see the same thing in the course of cataloging foreign language print. A former prof of mine cataloged a book written in Hawaiian. He was originally a Hungarian with working knowledge of 6 or 7 other European languages. He cataloged the Hawaiian piece as a prayer book, as he recognized the cadence of one page as "The Lord's Prayer," and drew recognition of other pages as he worked. -Ed